To travel to exotic countries should be prepared more carefully. In particular, do not neglect vaccinations. But here's how to protect yourself from malaria? With this question, the portal Nedugamnet.ru turned to the UN aviation paramedic, instructor Emergency First Response (first aid) Yuri Kardakov.
Yuri Kardakov immediately explained that vaccinations for trips abroad are mandatory and optional.
compulsory vaccinations are given against yellow fever (without it they may not be allowed to enter some countries) and against meningitis for Saudi Arabia. All other vaccinations are recommended.
“When going to a country, you can go to the Roszdravnadzor website and see what vaccinations are recommended when visiting a country,” the expert explained. - From my experience I can say that I was vaccinated against cholera before visiting Africa and India.
Unfortunately, malaria vaccines do not exist yet. It is worth noting that malaria is one of the most deadly diseases, which kills many people around the world.
What you should pay attention to in time to seek medical help. Yuri Kardakov made several recommendations.
- Any increase in temperature that you have in a potentially dangerous country should immediately alert, - the expert noted. - Any increase in temperature in a country located in the malaria belt should be regarded as malaria. The temperature of 37.5 is already a good cause for concern. Remember that malaria is a great deceiver, it does not have any specific clinical picture. It can be varied. Ideal when you take with you a special kit with rapid tests for the diagnosis of malaria. You can purchase rapid tests in advance, they are sold in large pharmaceutical companies, or purchased in the host country. As for laboratory diagnostic methods, in some cases they are less preferable due to the low level of personnel, lack of good equipment, problems with electricity, therefore, according to new WHO recommendations, an express test is preferable. You must have antimalarial drugs with you. There are a lot of them, but thanks to Artemy Lebedev everyone is treated with a coartem. The famous designer said that only this drug saved him from malaria. This is a mistake, because coartem belongs to the first type of drugs, and now there is already a second type of drugs.
In addition, Yuri Kardakov advises to remember about health insurance. If necessary, you should only seek professional medical help, and not the local doctors. Otherwise, the result may be sad. There have already been such cases. And, of course, do not forget about prevention: wear closed clothes, use mosquito nets indoors, and repellents outdoors and do not appear on the street at night. At this time, mosquito activity, including malaria, increases.
What is malaria?
Malaria is a deadly disease caused by parasites that enter the body through the bite of infected mosquitoes.
- Fever (chills, fever, sweating)
- High temperature (above 39 degrees)
- Prolonged headaches.
- Nausea, vomiting.
All these symptoms usually appear on the tenth to fifteenth day after an insect bite. Without timely treatment with effective medications, malaria is often fatal. People who come from malaria-free regions and are not immune to the disease are very vulnerable to infection.
The carriers of malaria are female mosquitoes of the genus Anophilis. When they bite people, the infection is transmitted to them through this bite. When a mosquito bites an infected mosquito, mobile microscopic forms of the parasite, along with mosquito saliva, enter the human body, penetrating the bloodstream. Then they reach the liver, where they continue to develop. After that, they enter the bloodstream in large quantities and a person has fever attacks. Further, parasites are introduced into the red blood cells of a person - red blood cells, the development of anemia and other negative consequences develops.
Malaria is transmitted through blood from person to person, for example, when a patient is transfused or if the patient’s blood enters the wound of a healthy person. Also recorded cases of infection of the baby in utero from a sick mother with subsequent complications in the formation of the fetus.
Why is malaria dangerous?
Malaria continues to be one of the most serious health problems for many regions of the world. Approximately a quarter of a billion cases of malaria infection occur each year, resulting in about one million deaths.
Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 90% of these cases. These include areas of the equatorial belt, tropical and subtropical regions. This is the habitat of infected mosquitoes - a territory with no freezing temperatures, where there are swamps.
The main category of patients is children under 5 years old, because they only partially develop the body's resistance to the disease. Children fall into a coma, do not react to anything else, this occurs after a protracted and not very vomiting phase. In this condition, they can no longer take medicines in the form of syrup or powders, i.e. treatment is possible only intravenously.
In advanced cases, the disease is treated with an intravenous drug artesunateIt is a derivative of artemezin. Previously, doctors used quinine to treat severe malaria. At the moment, scientists are trying to find a cure that can treat malaria in three days, i.e. one dose per day.
For the most part, it is possible to defeat malaria and a person develops immunity to the disease. If a child suffered from malaria in childhood, then in 90% of cases, one should not be afraid of relapse, although there are exceptions.
Why is prevention important?
More and more Russians are leaving the country on vacation or at work. In this regard, the question arises: how to protect yourself from malaria?
There is a list of countries in which the disease is common. All travel agencies have this list. Therefore, when traveling abroad, you need to find out from the tour operator whether prevention of the disease is required upon arrival in another state.
List of countries with a high probability of contracting malaria:
- Thailand (constantly, in the countryside, safely in Bangkok, Pattaya, Chiang Mai).
- Laos (constantly, everywhere, safely in Vientiane).
- Cambodia (constantly, in the west of the country).
- Iran (May-October, in the provinces of Kerman, Hormozgan).
- Iraq (May-October, in the north of the state).
- Afghanistan (in the south of the country, May-November).
- Bangladesh (along the southeast border, constantly).
- Vietnam (constantly in all but industrial areas).
- India (constantly, everywhere, safely in the area of Himakal Pradesh, Jamma and Kashmir).
- Indonesia (constantly, everywhere except Jakarta, the islands of Bali and Java).
- China (northern regions - July-November, Hai-nan island, Yunan).
- Arab Emirates (In the north, safe in Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ajman).
- Saudi Arabia (constantly in the west of the country, safe in Medina, Mecca, Taif).
- Nepal (constantly, in the Terai region, safe in Kathmandu).
- Pakistan (constantly, everywhere below 2000 m.).
- Morocco (year-round, everywhere).
- Syria (in the north, May-October).
- Algeria (year-round, Arib and Ihrir).
- Sri Lanka (year-round, everywhere, safely in the region of Colombo, Kalutara, Nuwara Eliya).
- Kenya (year-round, everywhere).
Immunoprophylaxis of the disease is carried out with medications, because there is no vaccine for this disease. Usually prescribed funder, it is prescribed for preventive purposes seven days before the trip, during the trip and seven days after.
You also need to protect yourself and your family from mosquito bites, carriers of malaria. To do this, it is necessary to exclude contact with an infected mosquito. They begin to bite after five hours, when the heat subsides. Be sure to install mosquito net on all windows and doors in the room. There are also special ointments and sprays based on herbs for repelling insects.
If preventive measures are taken, the probability of infection will be very small.