For several years now, the trend of abandoning school education in favor of educating a child at home with the subsequent passing of exams in the form of external studies has gained popularity. Both systems, both school and home-based, have their own supporters and opponents who give arguments both in defense and against each of the systems. Let's dwell on each of them.
So what is education? Education can conditionally be divided into two main components: firstly, it is directly the educational component, that is, the child’s assimilation of a certain minimum of knowledge in various fields of science (exact, humanitarian, etc.), and secondly, this is the educational component. In a broader sense, the latter can be called the socialization of the child. In which of these components is the best assimilation of specialized knowledge?
In this or that case, it is necessary to check the level of knowledge through any control measures (exams, tests, and so on). According to the Federal State Educational Standard, home-based education is knocked out of the traditional structure, which greatly complicates the adjustment of the child to a certain standard.
How are control activities at school? If the child cannot cope with the task, that is, is not certified, then, of course, this leaves an imprint on his fate and the fate of the institution in the future. Thus, schools will never be interested in a large number of underperforming students. Therefore, any certification is primarily carried out for the school, and not for students. Of course, even with a huge number of underperforming students, certification will be passed. In the case of home-based education, there is no such interest. Which, of course, increases demand from a child who has refused to study in the system. On the exam, such a child can be interrogated with a passion. After all, what stands out is what attracts the attention of others. One has only to recall the experiment with a monkey: several cubes and a ball are placed in front of her, and she chooses, of course, the ball, but when only cubes are placed in front of her, and all but one (red) are yellow, she chooses red.
In light of these factors, the certification of homeworkers is becoming a tougher test for children. However, thanks to this, the knowledge of the student at home will be many times greater than the knowledge of an ordinary student. Someone may oppose selective study of subjects at home, but do not children at school choose their favorite subjects for which they have more abilities? Therefore, home schooling is in no way inferior to the school curriculum. Russian language or mathematics will be a priority - it will already show time.
At school, this is, firstly, communication with the teacher, and secondly, communication with peers (the team). Unfortunately, the dominance of the teacher over the student is clearly manifested in schools, which gives the command an executive-executive tone. Churchill also claimed that in the hands of the school teacher there is power that the prime minister did not even dream of. Such communication develops several aspects of a child’s character at once. Here and the ability to get out, and humiliate, obey. Such socialization makes people mentally disabled, because they do not know how to communicate on equal terms. This is a direct road to civil servants. Such people are extremely resourceful, cunning, but they have to be put in place, as in a wolf pack, otherwise, having felt at least a small fraction of superiority over others, they begin to be rude.
The need for translation
Now let's talk about which children are transferred to home schooling. Sometimes it’s really not worth raping a person. It is better to give her a harmonious development through family education. There are many reasons why parents do not send their children to schools.
Reasons for transferring a child to home schooling:
1. In the case when mentally the child is an order of magnitude ahead of their peers. For example, he already knows how to read and write, has independently mastered the program of primary classes. Such a child, once in an environment where he already understands and knows everything, can dramatically lose interest in learning in general. There is also a fallback option for such children - to go to school by jumping several classes. But this approach does not guarantee the full adaptation of the child to environmental conditions, given the development of mental and physiological.
2. If your child is seriously interested in some business that could become his future profession. For example, a musician, artist and so on. It is difficult and unproductive to mix this activity with school.
3. If the work of parents requires constant moving, which does not positively affect the condition of the child. A change of environment is already enough stress, let alone social adaptation in each new school.
4. When parents refuse to send their child to an educational institution for moral, ideological or other reasons.
5. It often happens that if a child has serious health problems, parents think about how to transfer a disabled child to home schooling. Usually parents arrange with teachers to come to teach their son or daughter at home.
How to transfer a child to home schooling
First you need to find out the situation in the chosen educational institution. His charter should include a clause on home schooling, otherwise expect a waiver. Then you will have to contact other places or directly to the education department of the local administration to provide you with a list of schools with home education included in the charter.
Very few documents will be required in order to provide education for the child at home. You will need the following: a child’s birth certificate or passport, a statement on the transition to home schooling, as well as medical certificates in case the child’s health condition caused the transfer.
If the parents themselves decide to give their child a family education, they will need to perform simple steps. Namely: to collect documents, write a statement, if the child switches to this type of training for health reasons, then parents need to contact the local doctor for a referral to a psychological, medical and pedagogical consultation, where it will be decided whether to transfer the child to home education.
An application for transfer to home schooling is written in the name of the school principal, but it is also likely that he will not want to take such responsibility and forward the application to the education department. As an option - write a statement immediately to the administration.
This statement should reflect the number of subjects and hours set for home study.
How to transfer a child to home schooling? It is necessary to coordinate the schedule of classes with the school administration. Planning home schooling can be provided to school teachers, or you can independently develop your own methodology, based on the hobbies of the child.
There are several varieties of home education:
1) Home-based training. With this approach, the school teachers make an individual learning plan: teachers come to the house and read objects according to the schedule. This type of education is usually prescribed if there is a medical condition.
2) External studies. The child studies the school curriculum either on his own or with the help of his parents. Training takes place at a convenient pace and mode. This technique involves independent control over the exams, for example, a child can master a two-year program in one year and break ahead of their peers in development.
3) Self-study. In this case, the child chooses the learning style himself, parents do not take any part in this. Nevertheless, all types of home schooling require a child to attend school twice a year to pass exams. After all, the only way he will be able to get a certificate of secondary education. Therefore, parents need to weigh the pros and cons before sending a child to school or teaching at home.
Step forward or back?
Now in the world of digital technologies, Internet communication and a surge of social networks, it has become real to even learn not only at home, but also virtually. For example, in Germany they even opened the first virtual school.
Now school is not a place to raise a child. Only 20-30 years ago, knowledge was obtained only from books, now the range of sources on the Internet is simply massive. This will greatly facilitate the task for parents and children to create the right direction for home schooling.
The school is no longer a bulwark of a moral or moral pattern. At home, you can choose individual lessons for your own child, based on his interests, hobbies, hobbies. So, over time, he will learn how to independently distribute his free time in order to get the maximum benefit. Of course, the child has more free time after switching to home schooling, but this should not be abused, because time is our builder. Offer your child various activities, praise for trying and inspire new achievements.
Replace school with an online academy!
Of course, many parents are unlikely to devote enough time to their child. In this case, online training comes to the rescue. On the Internet there are whole academies for young professionals, filled with videos of various topics and levels. It is worth noting that such academies provide their services on a completely free basis.
Today, many universities in the world began to conduct online lectures. The only obstacle may be knowledge of the language, but this does not prevent you from studying English, German and other languages at home through online resources, tutors and so on. Everything is solvable.
Knowledge or skills?
The school requires an assessment, and in life, children will need skills. For example, performance. "I want - I do not want" is not quoted here. To become a good specialist, you need to operate skills every day. Such a skill is developed not only in an educational institution, but in studies as an interesting and useful thing, such as sports, designing models, and creating computer games. Very important is the skill of achieving the result. Such a skill is difficult to form in school conditions due to the fact that the time schedule does not allow the child to immerse himself in knowledge and put it into practice. As soon as the child begins to delve into, 45 minutes of school time ends, and he has to urgently reconfigure. This method has outlived itself, since memory does not have time to put the acquired knowledge into a separate “file” in the student’s brain. As a result, school lessons turn into a time that you just need to “survive”. Training, like any process, should bring results. Started - finished - got the result. Such a scheme will teach not only patience, ability to work, but also will raise the volitional qualities of the child.
The myth that there is live communication at school is long outdated. Everyone knows that at school, the student must be silent, attract less attention and generally be quieter than water, lower than grass. Only at events in an informal setting is it realistic to build a full-fledged communication.
As practice shows, children with a lot of interests who attend various circles and sections are more socially adapted than those who are silent in a rag throughout the lesson. Does it make sense to rape your children just because the system has prescribed? Give your children communication, confidence, and then all the roads in front of them will be open!
Assessments are just a subjective vision of certain people. They should not affect your relationship with your child. Many famous people did not bother at all about grades and tests, because they realized in time that at school they were wasting their precious time, which they could spend on improving their skills and abilities.
Cultivation of interest in a child
Encourage in every possible way any manifestation of interest in the child. Any hobby is wonderful, even if something seems frivolous to you. Let the children be children. The period for recognition is the age of 9 to 13 years. You need to carefully listen to all the dreams of your child and give him the opportunity to realize his aspirations. As long as he has a job that he can do without respite, as long as he is ready to invest his strength, he has important life skills.
Believe in your baby
Only you can take his side, you are his support and protection. The whole world is against your child, take his side and support his hobbies and interests.
The decision to transfer the child to home education, or home-schooling, as they call it now, rests entirely with the parents, they will have to take responsibility for the future of their child. And if you look like this, isn't that their prerogative? Why on earth should the fate of your children be decided by other uncles, aunts, teachers, officials, and others like them?
Advice before transferring to home-skilling
Before transferring a child to home schooling, he must first be shown to an experienced psychologist. Only by putting together the puzzle of the characteristics of the character, type of thinking, you can determine the temperament of the offspring. It is this procedure that will help to determine if he is ready for home-scrolling.
So, we told you how to transfer a child to home schooling and in what cases it is worth doing. Now you can make the right decision.
Home-Based Learning Options: Home-Based Education, Family Education, Distance Learning
Not all students on September 1 with a bouquet of flowers and a beautiful briefcase go to school. There are some kids for whom the call to the lesson will never ring. Formally, they will also be considered schoolchildren, but they will not go to school. They will learn from the comfort of home.
Home-based education can be carried out both when necessary (for medical reasons), and at the request of the parents. And depending on what caused the decision to switch to home-based training, the learning process itself and the technology for processing all the necessary documents will differ. Consider all the possible options.
Option 1. Home-based education
Home-based education is designed for children who, for health reasons, cannot attend educational institutions. According to the Russian Ministry of Health, in our country there are more than 620 thousand disabled children under the age of 18 years. Most of them cannot get secondary education. According to official statistics, in the academic year 2002/2003, less than 150 thousand of them studied at general educational and secondary specialized educational institutions. The rest of the children either do not receive education at all, or study at home, but do not have any documents on obtaining education. For such children, home-based education is the only way to obtain a certificate of maturity.
There are two options for home schooling for children with disabilities: an auxiliary or a general program. Children who study in the general program pass the same subjects, write the same control tests and pass the same exams as their peers studying in school. But the homework lesson schedule is not as tough as at school. Lessons can be either less long (20-25 minutes), or longer (up to 1.5-2 hours). It all depends on the health status of the child. Teachers, of course, are more comfortable capturing several lessons at a time, so in most cases a child has no more than 3 subjects per day. As a rule, home-based training in the general program is as follows:
- for grades 1-4 - 8 lessons per week,
- for grades 5-8 - 10 lessons per week,
- for 9 classes - 11 lessons per week,
- for grades 10-11 - 12 lessons per week.
At the end of the general curriculum, the child is issued a certificate of graduation from the general school, the same as his classmates studying at school.
The support program is developed individually based on the health status of the child. When teaching an auxiliary program, a child at the end of school is issued a special certificate with an indication of the program according to which the child was trained.
- First of all, it is necessary to collect all medical certificates for registration of training at home for medical reasons. Parents or legal representatives of the child must provide the school administration with a medical certificate from the children's clinic with a medical commission for studying at home.
- At the same time, parents (or their replacement) must write a statement addressed to the director of the educational institution.
- If the child is not able to attend the general program, the parents, together with representatives of the educational institution, compose an auxiliary program, which describes in detail the list of subjects studied and the number of hours per week allocated for each subject.
- На основании представленных справок и заявления издается приказ по образовательному учреждению о назначении преподавателей для домашнего обучения и периодичность аттестестации ребенка в течение года.
- Parents are given a journal of the lessons they have conducted, in which all the teachers note the topics covered and the number of hours, as well as the child's performance. At the end of the school year, parents pass this magazine to school.
All the nuances of the home-based education of children with disabilities are spelled out in Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of July 18, 1996 N 861 "On approval of the procedure for the education and training of children with disabilities at home." Here are the most basic ones:
- The basis for organizing home-based education for a disabled child is the conclusion of a medical institution. The list of diseases, the presence of which gives the right to study at home, is approved by the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of the Russian Federation.
- Home-based education for children with disabilities is carried out by an educational institution, usually closest to their place of residence.
- An educational institution for children with disabilities studying at home: provides free of charge textbooks, study, reference and other literature available in the library of an educational institution, provides specialists from among pedagogical workers, provides methodological and advisory assistance necessary for the development of general education programs, provides intermediate and final certification, issues a state-approved document on the relevant education to those who have passed the final certification.
- Parents (legal representatives) can additionally invite teachers from other educational institutions when teaching a disabled child at home. Such teachers, by agreement with the educational institution, may participate, together with the teachers of this educational institution, in conducting the intermediate and final certification of a disabled child.
- Parents (legal representatives) who have disabled children, educate and educate them at home independently, are compensated by the education authorities for the amounts determined by state and local standards for financing the costs of education and training in a state or municipal educational institution of the corresponding type and type.
Option 2. Family education
You can study at home not only forcedly (for health reasons), but also of your own free will (at the request of the parents). The form when a child is studying at home at will (at the request of the parents) is called family education. In family education, the child receives all the knowledge at home from parents, invited teachers or independently, and comes to school only for passing the final certification.
Here are some main reasons when it’s more advisable not to force the child to go to school daily, but to transfer him to home schooling:
- The child is significantly ahead of peers in mental development. Often you can observe the picture when a child studied his entire program before his peers and he is not interested in sitting in the classroom. The kid spins, interferes with classmates and as a result may lose any interest in learning. You can, of course, “jump over” in a year (and sometimes in a few years) and study with older children. But in this case, the child will lag behind classmates in physical, mental and social development.
- The child has serious hobbies (professionally involved in sports, music, etc.). Combining school with professional sports (music) is quite difficult.
- The work of parents is associated with constant moving from one place to another. When a child has to move from one school to another every year, and sometimes several times a year, this greatly injures the baby. Firstly, there may be difficulties with academic performance. And secondly, it is psychologically difficult for a child to get used to new teachers, new friends and new surroundings every time.
- Parents do not want to send their child to a comprehensive school for ideological or religious reasons.
Family Learning: Process Technology
- To arrange home-based training at their own request, parents need to write a statement to the Department of Education. To consider this application, as a rule, a commission is formed, which includes representatives of the department of education, the school to which the child is attached, parents (or persons replacing them) and other interested persons (trainers or teachers of the child). Sometimes a child is invited to a meeting of the commission. If the commission recognizes the advisability of educating the child at home, an order is issued to attach him to a particular educational institution where the child will undergo final attestations.
- You can go the other way and write a statement directly to the director of the educational institution closest to the child’s place of residence. But due to the fact that family education is not very widespread in our country, school principals rarely take the responsibility to make decisions. As a rule, they send a parent's application to the Department of Education.
- In the educational institution to which the child is attached, an order is issued indicating the mandatory program corresponding to the age of the child, as well as the deadlines for passing the final and intermediate certification.
- Then, an agreement is concluded between the school and the parents of the child, which sets out all the rights and obligations of both parties (school administration, parents and the student himself). The contract should describe in detail what role is assigned in teaching a child to school, which - in the family, when and how many times will be held, certification, and also on what laboratory and practical classes the child must be present.
- When registering home-based training of their own free will, teachers from the school to which the child is attached are not required to come to his home. In this case, the child must independently, with the help of parents, go through the established program. Although sometimes parents agree with teachers for a fee for additional lessons. But this issue is decided solely by personal agreement.
- For the final certification, the child must come to the school to which he is attached on established days. Depending on the circumstances and age of the child, he or she may be required to undergo final and intermediate certification simultaneously with their peers. In this case, the child should come to school only on the days of the final control and testing. But for the child and for parents, the option is more convenient when an individual schedule of final and intermediate certification is assigned.
Option 3. Distance Learning
Around the world, among children who for one reason or another cannot attend general education institutions, distance education is widespread. Distance learning is the provision of educational services without attending school (lyceum, gymnasium, university) using modern information and educational technologies and telecommunication systems such as e-mail, TV and the Internet. The basis of the educational process in distance learning is focused and controlled intensive independent work of the student, who can study in a convenient place for himself, according to an individual schedule, having with him a set of special teaching aids and an agreed opportunity of contacting the teacher by phone, e-mail and regular mail, and also full-time. In our country, the remote form of secondary education is still being introduced only in some schools in the form of an experiment. You can find out about the availability of such “experimental” schools in your area at the regional department of education.
The Federal Law of the Russian Federation of January 10, 2003 N 11-ФЗ On Amendments and Additions to the Law of the Russian Federation "On Education" provides for the possibility of receiving education remotely. But it takes time to introduce distance education to schools. Firstly, the educational institution must undergo state accreditation, confirming the right of this institution to provide distance education services. Secondly, unified programs on distance education and special literature have not yet been developed. And thirdly, many schools in our country lack the necessary equipment and specialists to implement these programs. But getting a higher or secondary special education in a remote way is already quite possible. Almost all the largest educational institutions (universities, colleges, technical schools, etc.) have a faculty of distance education.
You must remember that you always have the right to choose. Regardless of which of the options for home schooling you have chosen, the child can at any time switch from home schooling to the usual form (that is, like his peers, go to school). To do this, he only needs to pass certification for the next reporting period (academic year, six months, a quarter).