Primary school teachers use guided reading to teach their students to read well. Guided reading is a pedagogical technology in which the teacher works with a group of students who have already mastered reading skills in approximately the same way. The teacher selects books that his students can overcome with a probability of 90%, but some difficulties still remain. Guided reading allows students to use different strategies when they learn to read, such as picture hints and context, the relationship between sounds, the structure of letters and words. Older students who are already exploring new ways of learning and gathering information can learn to use guided reading as a way of determining the value of information.
The child is 5 years old. How to teach reading by syllables
Almost all children today go to first grade, already knowing how to read. And to teach parents to read a child 5 or 6 years old, they consider it almost mandatory. Someone relies on classes in kindergarten or on the "fork", someone on the preparation for school. And how to teach a child to read at home? Do I need to learn to read syllables? How to do it right and fast? About the features of teaching reading to preschoolers - in an article from the Center for Primary Education GC "Education".
When to teach a child to read?
When to start? One child already in three years knows the whole alphabet, and the other only by the age of five begins to show interest in books. It's not about age, but about the child’s readiness to learn literacy. Key indicators of such readiness:
- the child speaks in separate sentences,
- pronounces most of the sounds clearly
- can consistently tell how he spent the day in kindergarten or visiting his grandmother,
- navigates in space, knows the concepts of "left", "right", "up", "down",
- holds attention, can do one thing (draw, sculpt, assemble the designer, etc.) 10-15 minutes.
Teaching a child to read should not begin with letters, but with sounds. It is the sounds that he hears from birth, and the letters are a means of recording sounds. Having learned to distinguish sounds in spoken words, merge sounds into syllables, divide words into syllables, the child will easily master reading.
Learning to distinguish sounds in words
Learning to read preschoolers begins with the fact that we teach the child to distinguish vowels and consonants, consonants, hard and soft. Vowels do not encounter obstacles in their path, they are formed only by voice, they can be sung, extended. Observe how the teeth and lips behave when making a sound. If they put a barrier, it is a consonant.
To hear the percussion sound in a word, it must be pronounced with surprise or inquiringly or “call” with this word: drum! umbrella? cat!
The peculiarity of the perception of a child of 4–5 years is that he needs to touch, disassemble and fold everything again to understand. The same principle should be followed when studying sounds.
With your child, take words into sounds literally. Let the vowels be red and the consonants blue cubes (no inscriptions). Build from them houses for words. Say the word "juice" yourself, then let the child pronounce it. Listen to the sounds, observe how the lips, teeth behave, at what moment they close.
Say the first sound - vowel or consonant? Lay out the first die. Say the second sound - vowel or consonant? Lay out the second cube and "read" the diagram. Are all the sounds lined up? Say the third sound and complete the circuit. Read the circuit, check if all the sounds are in place? When charting words made up of two syllables, designate stress. Next we add the designation of hard and soft sounds.
When studying sounds, take into account the peculiarity of the Russian language: the spelling does not always coincide with the pronunciation. Therefore, first suggest such words in which each sound is in a strong position, i.e. well heard when pronouncing. For vowels, this is a stressed position, the vowel "u" is always well heard. Monosyllabic words (one syllable) with an unpaired consonant at the end or two-syllable (two syllables) with a vowel "u" without stress or with "s" at the end of the word are suitable. For example, monosyllables: sleep, chalk, forest, spruce, ball, table, two-syllable: foxes, museum, sail, etc.
Having mastered the placement of such words into syllables, we can proceed to two-syllable and three-syllable words, the spelling of which coincides with the pronunciation, for example: saw, nose, cat, giraffe, cat, grandmother, salute, etc. In the word “nose” at the end we hear a sound “with "and we write the letter" c ", in contrast to the word" oak ", when pronouncing which we hear the sound" p ", but we write the letter" b ".
Only later can you offer words whose spelling and pronunciation do not match: frost, family, oak, water, forests.
We teach the child to divide words into syllables
Before the child begins to master the letter, teach him to divide words into syllables. Say words by slapping the number of syllables. In the Russian language, there are as many syllables in a word as there are vowels: sa-mo-yo, ka-ran-dash - 3 vowels, 3 syllables, yeah - 2 vowels, 2 syllables, sport - 1 vowel, 1 syllable, 1 clap.
Play Finish the Word. You throw the child a ball, calling the first syllable of the word, for example, "ma". The child returns the ball, calling the ending, for example, “sha”. Say the word in full: Ma-sha. Guess the ending of words, swap places with the child.
How to learn letters with a child
After the child has learned to distinguish the sounds that make up the words, we move from sounds to letters.
As a rule, there are no difficulties with learning the alphabet. Children readily remember letters, remember their name. You can use letters-magnets, letters-stickers, letters made of various materials - rough, smooth, soft. Place them on a special board, tablet, highlight the space on the wall of the nursery, on the refrigerator, on cabinets.
Collect a piggy bank for each letter: these may be objects whose name begins with this letter. Go through the toys, for sure there will be suitable items: “A” - an angel, an orange, “I” - an apple, “K” - a cube, a pencil, “B” - a bulldozer, banana. Slam the syllables by saying the words. Offer your child items and discuss together whether this letter will “be friends” with him. It’s still difficult for the child to find the right word, but be sure to support the initiative, remembering the principle: do it together, but not instead.
Consider the letter. What does she look like? What parts does it consist of? Imagine with your child: “B” looks like glasses, “E” looks like a brush. What does the letter M look like? Consider the drawings in which the letters "hid". Fold letters from cereals, buttons, sculpt from clay, clay, draw in different colors. The task is to teach the child to recognize the graphic appearance of letters, correlate with the sound that they denote.
Learn letters in alphabetical order is not recommended. Currently, there are two main principles of studying the alphabet.
Frequency (V.G. Goretsky). First, the most common sounds are studied, then the less common ones are followed, and finally, a group of less common sounds is introduced.
The positional principle (DB Elkonin). Sounds are studied in pairs, in accordance with the phonetic system of the Russian language: vowels "A" - "I", "O" - "E", paired consonants: "C" - "Z", "D" - "T", etc. d.
How to teach a child to read syllables
Whatever sequence you follow, introducing the child to vowels, tell us that these letters not only indicate a vowel sound, but also suggest how to read the consonant in front of them.
Having studied several letters, for example, "A", "I", "O", "E", "M", "H", "L", "C", "K", try to read syllables and short words. Before you read the syllable, look at the letter for the vowel. What work does she do: softens the consonant or indicates its hardness?
Compare the consonants in the words “CAT” and “KIT”. What sound does the letter “K” mean in both words? Which letter tells you that K is pronounced softly? Reason with your child: in the word "KOT" the letter "O" denotes the vowel sound "O", it does not soften the consonant, therefore we pronounce the solid sound "K". In the word “KIT” the letter “I” indicates softness, we pronounce the sound “K” gently.
When reading the words, orient the child to the vowel. Vowels denoting the softness of the previous consonant: "I", "E", "E", "Yu", "And." Next, suggest words with the letter "b" at the end of the word, it also indicates gentleness, but it is not pronounced: HORSE, ELK, GOES. Having mastered the principle of merging a consonant with a vowel, methods of designating softness on a letter, a child will be able to read any word, knowing what sound a particular letter means.
The principle of complicating words for reading is the same as when studying sounds: from monosyllables with clearly audible sounds - to words whose spelling matches the sound, and words whose spelling and sound does not match.
Hold on at this point. Do not rush to read sentences and text. Play with the words. Collect words from cards with syllables, find “extra” words for various reasons, for example, the shortest / longest, by the number of syllables, by value - TABLE, SPOON, BED, etc. Suggest words that differ in one sound: BOW - Luke, accent: ZÁMOK - LOCK, find the hidden words in the word: Rhino, sand, pin and the like. Read the slides: the first word consists of two letters, the second of three, and so on. Such game tasks will help to consolidate the syllabic reading skill and prepare for reading complex and new words.
Read the sentences
Having mastered the reading of words, go to sentences, and then to small texts. There are special publications for beginners to read children. It is important that the reading is pleasing to the child, is difficult, but doable.
What difficulties most often arise at this stage?
Sound merging. If the child pronounces each sound individually, but fails to pronounce it together, draw a path, write two letters of the syllable along the edges. Put your child’s finger on the first sound, drag it while you “run” along the path to the second. Hand out sounds together with the child, show how they merge into a word.
Regression. These are the return movements of the eyes with the aim of re-reading the already read. In order not to form a habit of reading and speaking a word several times, carefully observe how the child reads. Do not rush to switch from syllabic reading to reading in words, otherwise the child will get used to first reading to himself in syllables, and then reading out loud with a whole word.
Anticipation. This is the name of the semantic conjecture, the ability to assume the logic of the text. A very useful skill, but in the early stages of learning to read leads to errors. The child, in a hurry to read the word and get approval, “omits” the endings, having read only the first syllable, “thinks out” the word. To overcome such mistakes, suggest games with words, for example, to read "gibberish" verses - a set of rhyming combinations of sounds. And again, do not “drive” the child to master reading skills. This is a long and complicated process.
Try to orient your child immediately meaningful reading. Before reading, review the illustrations, read the headline, suggest what the text is about, ask questions. While reading, ask clarifying questions to understand what has already been read, and clarify the meaning of new words. After reading, discuss who they read about, what he / she is doing. Draw, play the read stories.
To overcome slow reading, develop a child’s memory, attention. Play with words and words, expand your vocabulary. The success of learning to read is determined by the development of thinking, memory and speech, formed by motivation.