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How to prepare the floor for laying tiles: tips and nuances

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Preparing the floor for laying tiles includes a number of mandatory works that allow you to make the future foundation of high-quality, smooth, able to withstand intense loads. What you need to pay attention to:

  • unevenness
  • strength test
  • protection against moisture, mold, fungus,
  • surface cleanliness
  • adhesion of materials.

Removing flooring

To assess the scope of the proposed work, you must remove the old coating. If the tile is laid on the base, then it is dismantled with the cement mortar, using a hammer drill with a nozzle or a chisel. If linoleum, laminate, parquet was laid, then it is removed using an improvised tool. It is important to clean the surface of glue, stains, or paint residues with a 3% hydrochloric acid solution.

Sex can be of the following types:

  • concrete (draft, with screed),
  • wooden,
  • with an old screed
  • with a ready base.

Depending on the type of flooring, preparing the floor for laying the tiles will take a different amount of time, means, materials and tools. When working with any of the surfaces, follow a certain order:

  • assessment of the quality of the floor. The presence of bumps, crevices, strength of the base, the degree of slope,
  • correction of identified deficiencies,
  • cleaning,
  • treatment with antifungal protective impregnations,
  • waterproofing installation,
  • screed application
  • drying,
  • primer.

Tools for preparing the base for tiles

It should be noted that preparation will take a lot of time and effort. Do not miss a single detail, carefully check the list. So, from the tools for preparing the base for laying tiles, you must have:

  • little roulette
  • level,
  • metal brush
  • medium sized hammer
  • spatulas
  • Macro brush
  • trowel,
  • the rule
  • small needle roller.

In some cases, you will need additional tools, which will be mentioned later.

Preparation of a cement base for laying tiles

If the base is made for laying tiles - a cement-sand screed, then a perforator will be required to dismantle it. And to mix the concrete mix, keep a whisk for a punch or electric drill.

If dismantling of the screed is not required, preparation for the tile is best done with a bulk floor, since it does not require special alignment and is quite easy to do.

We proceed to repair the base for laying ceramic tiles:

  • First of all, we clean the layer of dirt and residual parts of the old coating. If there are cracks, we cover them with a solution of tile glue or sand concrete M300,
  • Do not forget that when laying tiles in the bathroom, waterproofing is one of the key points in repairing the floor. You can use waterproofing mastic or other coating types of waterproofing. We apply waterproofing so that it enters the walls by about 10 cm. We coat the entire base well with mastic, paying particular attention to joints with the walls. Leave to dry.

  • Now proceed to the bulk floor. If we dismantled the screed, then first we make a new screed. If the screed is in order, we dispense with the bulk floor. The bulk floor dries 3-12 hours, after which you can lay the tiles on the floor. You can also read about how to prevent crack formation in the screed, everything is useful.

Preparation of a wooden base for laying tiles

A wooden base is the worst option for laying tiles. However, if for some reason there is no choice, you need to carefully prepare the foundation. If the floor - boards on the logs, they should not creak bend. The task is to minimize the mobility of the wooden base. Ideally, they should not be mobile at all. If there is any movement, the boards should be filled (with self-tapping screws) with OSB or plywood sheets with a thickness of at least 20 mm, the joints should be putty with wood putty. Another option is to make on top of the wooden base the same c / n screed at least 20 mm thick:

  • The joints of the boards go through the mounting foam so that there are no gaps anywhere,
  • Prime the wooden surface with concrete contact,
  • Lay a reinforcing metal mesh on the base
  • Perform c / n floor screed or make the bulk floor a layer of at least 20 mm,
  • Allow the screed to dry for at least 2 weeks. Bulk floor for at least 5 days.
  • Prime with deep impregnation primer, allow to dry for at least 2 hours and you can lay tiles.

Ask questions in the comments below or by mail. Subscribe to the newsletter. Good luck to you, and good to your family!

Floor in a new apartment

Most likely, it will be uneven and, possibly, even with a bias, but this option is actually worth considering as ideal. Homeowners are given the opportunity to make the entire floor “from scratch” without removing the old coating and monitoring the implementation of each stage: cleaning, sealing cracks, waterproofing, pouring screeds. A well-made floor will last for many years, and any decorative coating can be put on it.

Work Stages

  1. First you need to evaluate the surface condition: find out the magnitude of the slope and bumps, on which the choice of leveling method will depend: a slight difference in heights (up to 3 cm) can be corrected with a self-leveling screed, a more serious one will require pouring a cement-sand screed, and with a significant slope (more than 10 cm ) you will need to do a screed on expanded clay so as not to overload the ceiling.
  2. Now, if necessary, it is necessary to repair the base: knock down large protrusions, expand, prime and grind cracks and cracks with a solution.

Concrete floor repair

Laying the floor for laying tiles

Tile layout

Before you start laying the tiles on the glue, the floor must be primed - this will improve the adhesion of the adhesive to the screed. By the way, you can lay the tile on a special glue, applying it with a notched trowel, as well as on mastic or cement mortar. Naturally, glue is preferable, as it is created specifically for these purposes. Using proven tools, you can be sure that over time individual tiles will not fly out.

Preparing a wooden floor for laying tiles

Strictly speaking, a wooden floor is not the most successful base for tiles, so such a coating is laid on it only as an exception. If there is a concrete base under the wooden floor, it is best to work with it by removing the rough coating. However, for those who, for some reason, having wooden floors at home, still want to enjoy a tiled coating, there are also options to fulfill their dream.

Preparing a wooden floor for laying tiles

As you know, the surface under the tile should not only be flat, but also durable and motionless, so that flexing floorboards are excluded. In addition, the tiled floor is quite heavy, so you need to be sure that the existing coating will withstand it and will not bend under weight.

Laying tiles on a finished foundation

In addition to the cases already described, with different bases, there are those when the tile needs to be laid on another coating, for example, vinyl or linoleum. Theoretically, this is possible, although not desirable. Under linoleum, for example, mold may appear if it was originally poorly glued, so it is better to remove all old coatings and work with a clean base.

If for some reason this is not possible, you will have to sandpaper a smooth surface and apply scratches to improve adhesion to the glue.

The only cover on which to lay the tile is another tile, although it is desirable to remove it. It's just that this process is quite difficult, therefore it is allowed to process the old coating with emery to make it rougher. The staggering tiles will have to be removed, and the resulting recess should be filled with tile glue.

So, floor tiles are very beautiful, albeit moody. Fortunately, you can always find a way to decorate your house with it, even if it has wooden floors. Beauty will require efforts, sometimes even very significant, but then it will delight residents for a long time.

Video - Preparing the floor for laying tiles

Work Stages

  1. First you need to evaluate the surface condition: find out the magnitude of the slope and bumps, on which the choice of leveling method will depend: a slight difference in heights (up to 3 cm) can be corrected with a self-leveling screed, a more serious one will require pouring a cement-sand screed, and with a significant slope (more than 10 cm ) you will need to do a screed on expanded clay so as not to overload the ceiling.
  2. Now, if necessary, it is necessary to repair the base: knock down large protrusions, expand, prime and grind cracks and cracks with a solution.

Concrete floor repair

Laying the floor for laying tiles

Tile layout

Before you start laying the tiles on the glue, the floor must be primed - this will improve the adhesion of the adhesive to the screed. By the way, you can lay the tile on a special glue, applying it with a notched trowel, as well as on mastic or cement mortar. Naturally, glue is preferable, as it is created specifically for these purposes. Using proven tools, you can be sure that over time individual tiles will not fly out.

Old strong screed in need of minor repairs

Usually it is found under an old decorative coating: linoleum, parquet or other. Also a good option for laying tiles.

Work Stages

  1. Forecast of elevation of the floor. The thickness of the tile and the adhesive must be added to the existing screed - the floor raised to this height should not interfere with the opening of the doors. If this cannot be avoided, there will be three ways out of the current situation: to abandon the tile in favor of a finer decorative coating, or to raise the thresholds and change the doors, or to knock down the old screed and fill in a new one, but it’s not a fact that it will turn out thinner, because it’s not known what was the previous state of the surface.
  2. If everything is normal with the floor level, then the next step is cleaning. Dust and debris removal is necessary, as these particles interfere with the adhesion of the adhesive to the floor surface.
  3. Now you can repair the screed if it needs it. As a rule, the entire repair in such cases consists in sealing cracks that can be wiped with the same tile glue that will be used for laying the coating.
  4. Ready repaired screed can only be primed, and you can begin laying tiles. By the way, by adjusting the thickness of the adhesive layer, you can even out minor irregularities (up to 1 cm) on the floor.

Laying tiles on the floor

Old crumbling screed

This is the most unfortunate option - the old screed, which is already crumbling, will have to be removed, and completely. It is necessary to remove not only those pieces that themselves fall out, but also those that have not yet begun to depart. This will complicate the work and require additional time and tools.

Work Stages

  1. The first step is to remove the screed. This must be done carefully so as not to damage the ceiling. Most likely, a perforator will be required for this, since large pieces simply cannot be knocked down with a hammer, but they must be removed. Firstly, they will somehow depart anyway, and secondly, they will interfere with the new screed.

Concrete floor repair

Pouring a new screed

Preparing a wooden floor for laying tiles

Strictly speaking, a wooden floor is not the most successful base for tiles, so such a coating is laid on it only as an exception. If there is a concrete base under the wooden floor, it is best to work with it by removing the rough coating. However, for those who, for some reason, having wooden floors at home, still want to enjoy a tiled coating, there are also options to fulfill their dream.

Preparing a wooden floor for laying tiles

As you know, the surface under the tile should not only be flat, but also durable and motionless, so that flexing floorboards are excluded. In addition, the tiled floor is quite heavy, so you need to be sure that the existing coating will withstand it and will not bend under weight.

Durable wood floor

If there are no serious complaints to the floor (plank, plywood, from chipboard, etc.), then it will only be necessary to prepare its surface.

Work Stages

  1. All joints must be filled with foam.

All joints must be filled with foam

Primer

Leveling a wooden floor with a self-leveling mixture

How to glue a tile

Old wooden floor with curving floorboards

Work Stages

  1. First you need to remove all the floorboards.

Dismantling floorboards

Gypsum fiber for floor with fold system

Laying tiles on a finished foundation

In addition to the cases already described, with different bases, there are those when the tile needs to be laid on another coating, for example, vinyl or linoleum. Theoretically, this is possible, although not desirable. Under linoleum, for example, mold may appear if it was originally poorly glued, so it is better to remove all old coatings and work with a clean base.

If for some reason this is not possible, you will have to sandpaper a smooth surface and apply scratches to improve adhesion to the glue.

The only cover on which to lay the tile is another tile, although it is desirable to remove it. It's just that this process is quite difficult, therefore it is allowed to process the old coating with emery to make it rougher. The staggering tiles will have to be removed, and the resulting recess should be filled with tile glue.

So, floor tiles are very beautiful, albeit moody. Fortunately, you can always find a way to decorate your house with it, even if it has wooden floors. Beauty will require efforts, sometimes even very significant, but then it will delight residents for a long time.

Video - Preparing the floor for laying tiles

Nikolay Strelkovsky chief editor

Posted by 02/06/2015

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Concrete floor preparation

General rules that apply in order to prepare the floor for laying tiles.

  1. Using a rule of 2 m in length, protrusions of more than 3 cm are noted, they are removed. Slots and joints are expanded, treated with soil, cemented,
  2. Remove dust, grains of sand from the surface with a vacuum cleaner, oil stains are wiped off. Processed by mold impregnation,
  3. Do waterproofing. Suitable for this: thick plastic film, geotextiles, mastic, bituminous roll materials, waterproof varnishes and paints. In rooms with high humidity, the film is continued on the walls (up to 30 cm). In residential premises it is convenient to process joints between the floor and the wall, plates,
  4. The type of screed is selected depending on the slope of the floor or its most protruding part. So:
    • a height difference of up to 3 cm is adjusted with a mortar (tile adhesive), on which the tile will be laid or, the entire surface is poured with a self-leveling screed. It should be noted that the quick drying of the mixture is achieved due to substances that form a film on the floor surface, which interferes with the good setting of the coating with the base,
    • up to 10 cm use a cement-sand screed. The thicker the layer, the longer it dries, possibly the appearance of cracks,
    • over 10 cm spread claydite, and then pour it with a solution for leveling.
  5. Drying. Complete hardening of the cement mortar occurs after 28 days. When using quick-drying mixtures - depending on the manufacturer,
  6. Primer. It allows you to improve the adhesion properties of the surface to the cladding, get rid of dust, has antiseptic properties, protects against excessive moisture absorption. Rolled on the surface of the roller in several layers. The choice of solution for priming is determined by the type of screed,
  7. After the primer has completely dried (up to 12 hours), the preparation of the surface for laying the tiles is completed.

Floor preparation with old screed

If there is a screed on the concrete base, it is necessary to assess its condition. If there are small cracks, cavities, then they need to be expanded, treated with soil and sealed with a solution that will be used when laying the decorative coating. If the screed makes a dull sound when tapping with a metal hammer, it pours, then it must be completely removed. Further, the whole process occurs in the manner described above.

Laying on the finished decorative coating

There are cases when linoleum is well glued to the surface and it is quite difficult to remove it. To improve the adhesion of the glue to the base, it is permissible to process the floor with sandpaper to better prepare it for laying tiles. When laying out a new tile on an old one, it is necessary to wipe its surface, to check whether the tile is properly attached. The fallen off pieces of tile are removed, and the space under it is filled with tile glue. Make sure that a new layer of tile will not prevent the door from opening.

After all the preparatory work, the preparation of the floor for the tiles is completed. It remains only to lay the tiles on the finished surface.

How to prepare the walls for laying out decorative elements?

The surface of the wall, as well as the floor, must be clean, even and strong. Уложенная на такую основу плитка прослужит долгие годы. Порядок работ по подготовке стены под плитку следующий:

  • очищение поверхности от старых покрытий,
  • выравнивание,
  • обработка грунтом.

If there is old tile, paint or wallpaper on the walls, it is necessary to carefully remove this material, since it will impair adhesion between the mortar and the wall. In the absence of coating, preparing the walls for laying tiles will take a minimum amount of time. It will be necessary to assess the type of wall flaw: concave, curved, with slopes, with irregularities at the joints. Depending on the elevation, use:

  • plastering with a cement-sand mixture (for a bath) with drops up to 6 cm or gypsum mixtures for kitchens and corridors,
  • the use of drywall sheets - over 6 cm,
  • the use of metal profiles and GCR with significant surface curvatures.

Plastering

On the wall with the help of a chisel, notches are applied, a grater gives it a roughness. They clean the surface of dust, primed with a suitable solution (depending on the porosity of the wall). If the curvature is within 1 cm, then plastering is not required. If more, then you need:

  • install beacons on the edges of the walls, pull the thread and fasten with a slat
  • apply plaster to the wall with a spatula and evenly distribute as a rule,
  • wait to dry
  • remove beacons
  • fill the holes with the remainder of the solution,
  • after complete drying, the plaster is wiped,
  • the surface is primed again.

Using Drywall Sheets

With a curvature of more than 6 cm, preliminary processing of the walls is required before laying the tiles with drywall. First, you need to remove dust from the surface and apply a primer. Next, prepare the sheets, and from the floor stick them to the wall, using a level and a rubber mallet. Installation glue is applied to the surface of the gypsum plaster with a step of 40 cm. Wipe the joints with a finishing putty. After drying, the surface is primed.

Metal profiles and drywall

With severe deformations, the preparation of walls for tiles is performed using metal profiles. With the help of self-tapping screws, the structure is assembled, the distance between the fasteners is 50-60 cm. The sheets of plasterboard material should go on the profile half the width. Between the wall and sheets lay waterproofing.

Tile is a beautiful, durable material. And the question of how to properly prepare the walls for laying tiles should be approached scrupulously and responsibly.

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