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Electronic configuration


Electronic configuration atom is a numerical representation of its electronic orbitals. Electronic orbitals are regions of various shapes located around an atomic nucleus in which an electron is mathematically likely. The electronic configuration helps quickly and easily tell the reader how many electronic orbitals an atom has, and also determine the number of electrons located on each orbital. After reading this article, you will learn how to make electronic configurations.


All involved in the structure of the atom in any of their studies come from tools that are provided to them by a periodic law, discovered by the chemist D. I. Mendeleev, only in their understanding of this law do physicists and mathematicians use to interpret the dependences shown to them by their “language” (true , the rather ironic aphorism of J.W. Gibbs on this score is known), but, at the same time, isolated from chemists studying matter, for all the perfection, advantages and universality of their apparatus, neither physics nor mathematics, to echno, build their research can not.

The interaction of representatives of these disciplines is observed in the further development of the topic. The discovery of secondary periodicity by E.V. Biron (1915) gave another aspect in understanding the issues related to the laws of the structure of electronic shells. C. A. Shchukarev, a student of E. V. Biron and M. S. Vrevsky, was one of the first in the early 1920s to express the idea that “periodicity is a property embedded in the core itself”.

Despite the fact that there is still no complete clarity in understanding the reasons for the secondary periodicity, there is a look at this problem, implying that one of the most important reasons for this phenomenon is the open caynosymmetry discovered by S. A. Schukarev, the first manifestation of the new symmetry orbitals (dr. Greek καινός - new and other Greek συμμετρία - symmetry, "caynosymmetry", that is, "new symmetry"). Kaynosymmetrics - hydrogen and helium, in which the orbital is observed s, - elements from boron to neon (orbital - R), - elements of the first transition series from scandium to zinc (orbital - d), as well as lanthanides (the term was proposed by S. A. Schukarev, as well as actinoids) (orbital - f) As is known, elements that are caynosymmetrics in many respects have physicochemical properties different from those of other elements belonging to the same subgroup.

Nuclear physics made it possible to remove the contradiction associated with the "prohibition" of Ludwig Prandtl. In the 1920s, S. A. Schukarev formulated the rule of isotope statistics, which states that in nature there cannot be two stable isotopes with the same mass number and charge of the atomic nucleus, which differ by one - one of them is necessarily radioactive. This regularity acquired its completed form in 1934 thanks to the Austrian physicist I. Mattauch, and received the name of the rule of ban Mattauch-Schukarev.

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