To prevent a possible heart attack, you need to follow a few simple rules that will reduce the risk of developing heart disease and heart failure. In general, you need to make some fundamental changes in lifestyle to maintain heart health, as well as to check for diseases and complications that can negatively affect heart health and increase the risk of heart attack. Diabetic patients should take special care of their health in order to make their heart as strong as possible. Here's how to start your journey to a healthy heart.
How to prevent myocardial infarction?
Follow the instructions below:
1 Follow the right diet
If you really want to prevent a heart attack, you should follow a balanced diet.
- try to exclude processed foods from the diet and replace them with fresh ones,
- reduce the consumption of sugar and artificial sweeteners - if you want something sweet, eat fruit,
- Avoid trans fats, such as vegetable oils or margarine - replace them with healthy fats, such as avocados, coconut oil,
- maintain hydration by drinking enough water,
- eat foods rich in omega-3s, such as oily fish, at least once a week,
- eat foods rich in vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. These nutrients help protect the walls of arteries, neutralize free radicals, slow down heart damage, and lower bad cholesterol (LDL).
2 Daily exercises
We know that exercise is important to your health, but remember that not all of them have a positive effect on your heart. To prevent a heart attack, it is best to do several high-intensity exercises for no more than 30 minutes a day.
To take full advantage of physical activity, try to give yourself time to rest between exercises. This will help keep your cardiovascular system in good condition without overloading your heart if you have had problems in the past.
3 Reduce salt intake
People who consume a lot of salt increase the likelihood of developing heart disease or heart attack compared to those who follow a balanced diet.
When there is too much sodium in the blood, the arteries narrow and the volume of blood passing through them exceeds their size. In this situation, the pressure in the arteries rises, which can lead to a heart attack, stroke, or hypertension.
This does not mean that you need to completely abandon the use of salt, because the body needs it. You can add a pinch of salt to your dishes. A lot of salt also contains processed foods, so they should be avoided.
4 Take care of your digestive tract
You may think that what happens in your stomach has nothing to do with preventing a heart attack. However, it is not. The truth is that serious gastrointestinal problems, such as irritable bowel syndrome, can affect your body so much that they can even lead to a heart attack or stroke.
By taking probiotics and eating fermented foods every day, heart problems can be prevented by promoting a healthy intestinal flora.
Adequate sleep is necessary to maintain proper levels of adrenaline and cortisol, which can prevent heart attacks. You must sleep at least seven hours a day and monitor sleep disturbances.
For example, sleep apnea has a negative effect on the body and can cause hypertension and heart disease.
6 Meditate and do yoga
When you meditate and do yoga, you relax your body and mind and change your energy, improving blood circulation and blood flow to the heart.
When your body and mind are relaxed, your heart works better, and this reduces the risk of a heart attack.
Remember that stress affects your nervous system, so if you are always upset or angry, your blood circulation and blood flow to the heart will decrease.
You can do yoga every day for about 20 minutes. Try to meditate immediately after waking up or before going to bed. At the very beginning, it can be difficult for you to maintain peace of mind and body. In the end, it will be easier for you, and you will gradually get used to it.
Almost everyone faced this situation: a neighbor, relative or work colleague was taken away in an ambulance with a heart attack. Later, the patient was diagnosed with a heart attack, severe arrhythmia or aortic aneurysm. However, all these cases have a common pattern - a serious condition of the patient and a real threat to life.
It is good if people are near such a patient and they call an ambulance. The timing of a heart attack is literally minutes, death can occur suddenly. That is why everyone should know the first signs of a heart attack, what is necessary and what is strictly forbidden to do with it.
Heart attack: what is it?
A heart attack is an acute condition that is particularly severe and is caused by the rapid development of heart failure. A pronounced spasm of the coronary vessels or their blockage by a thrombus leads to the death (necrosis) of the myocardial site.
An attack of heart failure can occur both in core patients (hypertension, diagnosed heart disease, etc.), and in completely healthy people. Often, an acute condition occurs in emotionally labile women who have a history of vegetovascular dystonia. The peak of heart attacks occurs in the spring, days of magnetic storms and hot weather.
Women of childbearing age are at the least risk. Hormones and an extensive network of small coronary vessels (a physiological feature of the female body) preserve them from a heart attack. However, with the onset of menopause in women, they begin to occur equally often with "men". Moreover, the stronger sex has a great chance of survival: women often die before the arrival of emergency care.
The main causes of a heart attack:
- Developing myocardial infarction - necrosis of the heart muscle begins 30 minutes after the onset of the attack, in such patients a history of heart ischemia, angina pectoris,
- Violation of the rhythm - severe tachycardia (heart rate "gallop"), atrial fibrillation (heart palpitations replaced by fading),
- Aortic aneurysm - often combined with aortic defect and arrhythmia, its detachment provokes a sharp deterioration in the state at night in bed,
- Pulmonary thrombembolism - often develops against thrombophlebitis of the legs and in old age, death occurs in a matter of minutes,
- Progressive heart failure is the result of prolonged cardiosclerosis, hypertension, and other heart diseases, a sharp weakening of myocardial contractions can occur after the flu, emotional reaction (both positive and negative), physical activity, and atmospheric pressure drop.
Harbingers of heart attack
Recent medical studies, in particular by scientists at Harvard University, have identified symptoms that occur about a month before a heart attack. Consult with a cardiologist in cases where the following conditions are detected:
- Excessive fatigue is not usual after a working day or household chores, but a complete lack of strength to perform simple actions (go to the store, climb the stairs). Fatigue does not go away even after a full sleep. Often, women note that the usual load (for example, a bag or a light grocery bag) is more difficult to feel. Many patients report more severe weakness, numbness, or goosebumps on the fingers of their left hands.
- Mild chest pains may migrate (either stabbing under the chest on the left, then crushing behind the sternum). In the best case, a woman takes Corvalol, Corsiz or drops of valerian. However, these drugs have only a calming effect, but do not improve myocardial blood supply.
- Shortness of breath occurs with little physical exertion and sometimes at rest. When climbing stairs, a woman has to stop to catch her breath.
- In the mornings and throughout the day, dizziness occurs, up to staggering and the need to sit down. In this case, the body becomes covered with cold sweat, the skin turns pale.
- Edema - women, especially lovers of high heels, note that swelling on the legs became stronger, do not disappear even after sleep. Often swollen hands (it is impossible to remove the ring from the finger), face (swollen eyes in the morning).
- Flu state - many recall the fact that shortly before a heart attack they experienced a condition like the flu (fever, body aches, runny nose and cough).
The first symptoms of an impending heart attack indicate oxygen starvation of the myocardium and a decrease in contractility. Without medical intervention, acute ischemia eventually develops - a heart attack.
Symptoms of a heart attack: how to distinguish from angina pectoris?
Most often, a heart attack occurs in the morning. Core patients are "accustomed" to their illness and do not pay due attention to a certain worsening of their condition, continuing their usual lives - take a shower, get ready for work, etc. A heart attack suddenly catches up:
- Severe chest pain, pressing or acute, is accompanied by a heartbeat (the heart pops out of the chest) or a sinking (feeling of a cardiac arrest). Pain can radiate to the neck, lower jaw, under the shoulder blade and arm on the left. Sometimes there is a feeling that the pain is localized in the stomach.
- The attack is accompanied by nausea and heartburn, less often vomiting.
- Shortness of breath - the patient takes breath in his mouth. With severe tachycardia, there is a sensation of a coma in the throat. In the future, wheezing is heard when breathing, a wet cough appears, sometimes with blood. This indicates the progression of heart failure and pulmonary edema.
- The skin turns pale, covered with cold sweat. With the development of heart failure, cyanosis (cyanosis of the skin) develops, limbs become cold.
- Dizziness often provokes a person to fall to the ground. The patient's eyes and facial expressions express a genuine fear of catastrophe, but often he cannot even ask for help. It often takes 10 seconds from a fall to a loss of consciousness, although this option is not necessary.
- Pressure during a heart attack rises, but sometimes remains within acceptable values.
A heart attack can mimic an angina attack, an exacerbation of a stomach ulcer, and bronchial asthma. To recognize a heart attack, you should know:
- Neither anti-asthmatic sprays (Salbutamol) nor acid-lowering drugs (Rhenia, Almagel) will help.
- An attack of angina pectoris, in contrast to true cardiac arrest, lasts no more than 10 minutes. and is easily stopped by Nitroglycerin.
- With a heart attack, Nitroglycerin does not help, and the attack lasts 30 minutes or more.
- Angina pain is always associated with physical or emotional stress. A heart attack often occurs at rest.
- Rest, taking patients a comfortable position does not bring relief. If, with a drop in pressure (hypotension, anemia, etc.) and a patient's unconscious state, they bring to the senses with ammonia (on the fleece to bring to the nose), with a heart attack, this technique is useless.
Heart attack: what to do to save a life?
Many people who survived a heart attack complain of the callousness of those around them: a person who has fallen on the street is often mistaken for a drunk and shy away. Meanwhile, time is running out, and the chances of survival are getting smaller. First aid for a heart attack:
- Raise the patient’s head (if dropped), unfasten the upper buttons, loosen the belt. Open the windows in the room.
- Urgently call an ambulance. If the patient is in a crowded place, shout to find a doctor or nurse. Their help will be needed for massage during cardiac arrest.
- Urgently put the patient under the tongue Nitroglycerin. Before the arrival of an ambulance, if the pain persists, you can give up to 3 tablets. with an interval of 5 minutes The fastest effect is given by sprays with nitroglycerin - Nitrospray. Nitroglycerin lowers blood pressure! In order to avoid cardiogenic shock, its intake should be limited if the upper a / d is below 100.
- In the best case, give the patient Aspirin in a dose of 300-500 mg (1/2 or a whole tablet). The patient must chew her! The use of Aspirin in the first 30 minutes from the onset of an attack will prevent the formation of a blood clot and increase the chances of survival. An ambulance doctor should be notified about taking Aspirin.
- If there is a tonometer, pressure should be measured before the ambulance arrives.
Special techniques that should not be used for heart attack:
The technique of deep coughing with a heart attack - inhaling deeply and coughing before sputum discharge - is widespread on the Internet. However, in the authoritative journal Journal of General Hospital Rochester, in which the article was allegedly first published, it is not and never was!
The effectiveness of this method is also not confirmed by the Association of US Cardiologists. From a medical point of view, a deep cough can help with arrhythmia, but it will only aggravate the condition with myocardial infarction, when any load is not desirable. You cannot cough with a heart attack!
The old remedy - a hot water bottle - at best, aggravate the patient's condition. Heat will provoke the spread of a necrotic focus and increase the area of a heart attack.
Antiarrhythmics and adrenergic blockers (Rizoprol, Verapamil, etc.) should be taken if they were prescribed by a doctor earlier (with a history of arrhythmia) or the patient has a frequent pulse. Self-administration of these drugs is not desirable.
cigarettes - the enemy of vessels No. 1
If you have a heart attack, it’s important not to waste precious time. In many cases, the timely provision of qualified medical care can save a person’s life! One should not be afraid of the reproaches of an ambulance doctor who arrived regarding the diagnosis of a heart attack. Human life is much more expensive, and what kind of attack happened will be sorted out in the hospital.
Symptoms of a heart attack in women in 60% of cases are fatal. Such disappointing figures are largely due to the failure or delay of proper medical care. The most unfavorable prognosis is pulmonary thrombosis and aortic dissection. With thrombembolism, death occurs in a matter of minutes, usually before the arrival of an ambulance. Aortic dissection in 90% of cases leads to death even with timely assistance.
To minimize the risk of a heart attack, no matter how trite it sounds, you should lead a healthy lifestyle. However, even the absence of bad habits (smoking, alcohol), good nutrition and sports does not guarantee complete protection against heart disease. Constant companions of modern life - stress, excessive tension - make the heart work at the limit of its capabilities, which sooner or later leads to the inability to fully cope with the load.
Take care of your heart, take care of your nerves and remember: experiences, achievements, failures - “everything passes”. “If a problem can be solved, it’s worth looking for a solution. If the problem is insoluble, then there is no point in worrying. ” And the last - visit your doctor regularly and get tested. After all, it is easier to correct minor disorders than to treat a developed heart disease.