There is an opinion among experienced speakers that there are only two moments in life when a person is left completely alone. This is in the face of death and before the start of the speech. It is very difficult to make a speech, because the speaker “sells” not an item, but an idea. Every success, as well as failure, is immediately reflected in the reputation.
The rules for constructing public speaking in any audience, even school ones, are absolutely similar. First of all, you need to have knowledge of the material presented. That is, any performance must be carefully prepared. But this is only half the battle. A brilliant professional, well versed in any issue, can fail completely if he has no idea at least about the basics of oratory.
Approaching the podium, you must remember that first, the audience perceives the appearance of a personand then what he will say. Therefore, it is necessary to look adequately in the eyes of those people in front of whom you are going to make a speech.
In order to get the audience closer, you need an internal friendly psychological attitude. You should behave calmly, confidently and with all your appearance emphasize respect for the audience, even if you are speaking in a colony in front of juvenile delinquents. Uncertainty, fear, awe should be suppressed by willpower, otherwise the performance will fail.
When you start talking, you need to remember the most important thing. The level of education and knowledge on a specific issue among people present can vary significantly from yours. therefore information must be submitted in a public form. The material presented should be “diluted” with imaginative examples and emotional digressions. It is not necessary to focus on details. If people are interested, they will ask questions.
You need to know that even the most brilliant speaker cannot hold audience attention for more than 20 minutes. People get tired of the flow of information, begin to turn their attention to something else. Therefore, short digressions that have nothing to do with the input material should be inserted into the speech. It can be a joke, a joke or some funny memory from life. In this way, students will receive psychological relaxation and will again focus on the main topic.
The worst thing about the performance is monotone. From it should be run, as from fire. Also important manner of speaking. Listeners like it when the speaker does not fuss, does not wave his arms, does not run around the room, shouting phrases from one corner or another. At the same time, it causes a feeling of rejection by a person who clings his hands to the platform or pulpit, mumbles words under his breath, pulls his head into his shoulders. In front of the audience you should be free and relaxed, behave confidently and at ease. The chin is slightly raised, the look is smart, kind and a little ironic.
Diction is the basis of any performance. Remember that a well-set voice does wonders. It is by giving it different emotional shades that you can captivate the listeners, make them believe even in things that you don’t believe in yourself. Thanks to good diction, confidence arises between the speaker and the audience. Psychological contact is being established with the audience, and, as a result, spiritual closeness appears, and this is an absolute success. Studying diction is best in the theater, listening carefully to the performances of the actors.
During the performance, you should in no case crouch in front of the audience. Those present will instantly feel their moral superiority over the speaker. Extraneous conversations will begin, the attention of the audience will switch to other problems. The psychological connection with the audience will be irretrievably lost.
Of great importance to any speaker first phrase effect. It is necessary to immediately attract attention. This is your first time entering a student audience. There sits about 140 people. There is a rumble in the hall, nobody pays attention to you. What to do in a similar situation? The stupidest thing is to run after the dean. Silently standing and waiting for people to calm down - it will take too much time. Grab a pointer and crack it on the table? This will produce the desired effect and arouse interest, but you can forever lose psychological contact with the audience.
It should, without paying any attention to the lack of interest in your person, introduce yourself in a loud and confident voice. At least those who are sitting in the front row will hear you. After that, you need to start talking. Your voice should sound friendly, welcoming and calm. No irritability and discontent. The din and noise quickly subside, and people begin to listen. When you propose to record something, then there will already be complete silence. Thus, you will defeat the audience, subordinate it to your will and give the audience the opportunity to enjoy your oratory talent.
The success of oratory lies in making people listen to you. To do this, you must have a certain degree of smell, diction and confidence. When all this is available, then you can easily speak to any audience. The number of those present will also not matter - at least one person, at least a thousand. All these people will listen to you with great attention, and you will be satisfied that you have shared the necessary knowledge and gained another grateful listener.
9 main skills
In order to understand how to become a speaker and learn to speak correctly, a person needs to master the following skills:
- The correct selection of material.
- The study of literature for writing speech.
- Scheduling your performances.
- Speech creation skills. When you create text, you need to adapt it for spoken language. Exclude words that may prevent you from pronouncing phrases correctly, and long or abstruse sentences should be rephrased into short and clear ones.
- Self-control. Before you realize how to become a speaker yourself and learn to speak literally, think about your mental state. For example, a famous speaker learned to make a speech while standing in front of statues. Thus, he prepared himself for the deliberate indifference of the public, and when he went out to people, the excitement was removed completely.
- Have an orientation skill. If, for example, you are defending a dissertation or some kind of scientific work, you are given a certain time. First, of course, you need to write a text for your speech, and it should last a minute less than expected. This is necessary for the timely completion of the speech and in the future understanding how to become a good speaker.
- Proper use of technical equipment. To speak beautifully in front of the audience, do not be afraid to supplement your words with visual moments, these can be presentations, graphics, and so on.
- A good skill is to be able to answer questions from listeners. You should also prepare for this in advance and consider options for possible questions so that you are not taken by surprise and your answer is concise and interesting.
How to become a good speaker: tips and their application
In order to properly and beautifully speak in public, you need to remember simple recommendations:
- The volume of the voice must be built for optimal sound. Do not talk too loudly, it can annoy the audience. So that at medium volume you can be heard clearly, understand one point: do not be afraid to open your mouth wide.
- Use intonation. To speak correctly, remember: the topic of discussion should be interesting and should not give your listener distractions. The content here is not the most important, it is necessary to correctly apply intonation, to highlight significant points and issues with voice and tone.
- Follow the pace and rhythm of speech. To speak competently, you need to perform exercises to develop the pace of speech. There is no special equipment here, you can record speech on the recorder and listen to where you are talking very quickly and where more slowly.
- Remember the gestures. Correct articulation of hand movements is one of the most important steps in deciding how to become a speaker. For this, only one tool will help you - training in front of the mirror.
- The importance of facial expressions. It should be appropriate and appropriate to the moment of the conversation or the topic of the speech.
- Remember the image. Appearance is an important step that must not be forgotten. No matter how long you learn to speak beautifully, if you come to a serious business event in jeans, you will be treated accordingly.
How to become a speaker? Exercise & Training
Are you concerned about the question of how to learn to speak beautifully, competently and naturally? If you pass the theory, nothing will work out without training. Exercise is a very important aspect of the whole process, and, of course, it is better that they are regular. We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the exercises that are necessary for correct speech.
How to become a speaker and understand beautiful speech? One of the most basic exercises has not changed since the time of Demosthenes. It is suitable for both theatergoers and future managers. First you need to put nuts in your mouth and pronounce tongue twisters, trying to do it correctly and clearly. But you should not resort to this method right away. This is undoubtedly an important exercise, but for a start it is better to deal with the correction of difficulties with speech. Absolutely competently even the announcers on television channels do not speak now. We advise you to find the recordings of the announcers of the Soviet era (which just the same spoke correctly) and take their speech as an example.
For competent public speaking, you should first understand and determine where you regularly make mistakes. Each region of the country has its own speech disorders. For example, Muscovites hoot, but in Perm they “eat up” words. It will be better if a person who is not from your city speaks about the problems. After all, you can not hear your violations, they can be everywhere in your district.
When giving a speech, you need to hold your breath, especially if you have to speak for a long time. To train your breath, you can turn to an interesting exercise called "33 Egorki". It is necessary to pronounce the following text: "33 Yegors stand in the yard, on the hill. Next, we recount: once Egor, two .. Egor can be as much as there is enough air. Of course, it is better if you get to the 33s. This exercise will help you not to run out of breath quickly, and after a speech lasting half an hour, you will be in shape.
To speak beautifully, you need to know the rules of the Russian language. In this case, your best friend will be a dictionary with accents. Perform regular exercises with the pronunciation of words in which you make mistakes, and bring this process to automatism. It is also worth looking for common speech errors. Next, you need to deal with stress in phrases, for example, the word "quarter" with stress on the first syllable.
8 practical exercises for self-study
- Inhale at the expense of 1, 2, 3, 4. At 5, 6 - hold your breath, at the expense of 7 to 15 - exhale.
- Say the tongue-twister “33 Egorki”, taking a breath in the indicated place, and continue on the exhale until the air runs out.
- Aperture training. We pronounce the following text with open mouth (or you can resort to the advice with nuts):
Three hours not to eat? Awful
I did not have dinner in vain.
I want to eat more than ever.
Three hours to wait? No problem!
There is character, there is a will,
I can’t - I won’t eat!
- It is required to pronounce the words at first slowly, then gradually speed up the pace, with a further slowdown.
- Speak syllables lingeringly and smoothly: mi, me, ma, mo, we.
- Pronounce complex combinations of sounds at first slowly, then accelerate: tlz, jr, kpt, mkrtch, kft, ksht, kzhdo.
- Speak difficult phrases, leisurely - quickly: stay awake, postscript, agitate, philosophize, over-alarmed.
- The combination of sounds can be performed in a playful way, for example: the sound of hammering nails - gdbu, gdbo, gbdi, imitation of horse stomp - PTK, PTK, PTK and so on for every consonant and with acceleration.
Who is the speaker
An orator is a person who has oratorical abilities, which consist in the ability to speak beautifully and convincingly, to perfectly master the tools of acting, to have psychological knowledge.
The talent of eloquence can be innate. It is even believed that each of us has it, only to a different degree is manifested. This means that anyone can develop this gift, taking into account individual characteristics and working on themselves.
With the development of oratory skills, comes the ability of public speaking, which has its own properties:
- special speech content - linguistic and non-verbal, in the form of facial expressions and gestures, methods of influencing the listener,
- focus - getting feedback from the audience,
- effectiveness - as a result of the psychological state of the speaker and his authority among the public.
But you can correctly build your speech if you use the rules of oratory:
- The presentation should be structured for better assimilation and accessible to understanding.
- Speech is correct, expressive and without parasitic words is able to capture the attention of the public for a long time.
- The information provided must be useful and truthful.
- The emotional fullness of the speech and the dry language of numbers will create a balance and will not let the listener's interest disappear.
- His attention should not be abused, laconicism and information capacity of speech are welcome.
- The beginning of the speech and its final part have a greater effect on the public than the content - this should be taken into account in the compositional structure of speech.
- It is necessary to speak with the audience in a language that she understands, given her intellectual level, age category, and social affiliation.
And then she will possess the qualities necessary for public speaking:
The image of a talented speaker is charismatic and closely associated with such features and traits as self-confidence, inspiration, erudition, the ability to improvise, lively thoughts, a strong voice, expressive gesticulation.
How to learn oratory yourself, we will talk more.
In the meantime - briefly on the basics of oratory.
Types of Eloquence
Depending on the composition of the audience and topics, eloquence is divided into types:
Oratory can have different goals of influencing the listener and it happens:
- informational, introduces new facts, information, knowledge,
- entertaining, has an entertaining character,
- convincing, in which the speaker seeks the consent of the listener with his point of view,
- inspiring, emotionally inspiring,
- calling for action, agitates to take action.
In order for a public speech to achieve its goal and not leave anyone indifferent, it is built according to the intent and content in a certain order, which is called composition.
The introduction should attract attention, interest, establish contact with the audience, give an idea of the topic of the upcoming message with a brief description of the problems.
The main part of the public speaking is the presentation of the material itself, argumentation, the use of facts and logical evidence.
The conclusion is intended to summarize and generalize what has been said, emphasize the main idea, draw conclusions, and inspire listeners.
It is advisable to be creative in your work on the composition. Keeping a clear sequence and consistency of its elements, it is important not to lose an individual style.
Features of oratory
Oratory is characterized by such features:
Oral presentation. The process of communication with the audience occurs directly when voicing thoughts. Texts for public speaking are acquired by ear and are structured to be easy to read.
The presence of feedback. A good speaker feels the audience. He distinguishes mood, catches reactions to what has been said, guesses emerging issues and flexibly builds a further dialogue.
The use of various means of communication. The use of gestures, pantomimics, intonation and other non-verbal methods is inherent precisely in oratory, which distinguishes it from ordinary oral speech.
The relationship between the text prepared for the presentation and its oral interpretation. Choosing the right tonality of communication helps present information in a intelligible way and find contact with the audience.
Oratory techniques are used to improve the perception of information. They work either by orienting the listener to a figurative perception, or by stimulating his mental activity.
- visual comparisons, short examples, illustrations are especially relevant when reporting numerical material,
- repeating what has already been said in other words creates a new image,
- an allegory illustrates the speaker’s ideas and thoughts,
- antithesis by contrast enhances their perception,
- exaggeration emphasizes those points that you need to pay attention to,
- rhetorical questions do not require an answer, but fuel interest,
- вставка, когда мимоходом сделанное замечание заостряет внимание на сказанном,
- неожиданные слова и действия усиливают любопытство слушателя.
Is there enough theoretical material? And now - the most interesting.
How to develop public speaking skills
To learn the secrets of oratory, you can enroll in courses and trainings in rhetoric, take lessons for beginners, choose online training or study a self-instruction book on eloquence. All of these options are brought to our attention by the immense internet.
If you like independent classes on the development of oratory, let's work on the technique of making a speech, prepare for a speech, learn how to interact with the audience and take some practical advice.
The sound of speech that you want to listen to depends on such components:
- Breath. The pace should be measured, while inhaling is shorter than exhaling. Inhale not “all the way” so that you can breathe. The same thing with an exhale. Improvement of speech is facilitated by special exercises. For example, developing the ability to breathe in the lower part of the lungs will provide strength to your voice and smooth speech.
- Volume. By controlling his voice, the speaker influences the public perception of what he says. If your voice is quiet by nature, you can make it louder. To do this, read expressively aloud, count on the exhale to ten, gradually increasing the volume of the voice.
- Diction. Speaking clearly, clearly pronouncing sounds, tongue twisters will help, if not to be lazy and do not forget to load your articulating apparatus with them.
- Pace. We must try to express our thoughts at an average pace, not to part with words and not stretch them. Since temperament and the internal state of a person at the time of the speech play an important role, it is important to calm down and tune in to a fruitful dialogue with the audience.
- Intonation. With its help, your speech will be remembered by the listener, because it will be alive. Practice, as in school, read aloud with expression of artwork.
Preparing for the performance
At this stage, the text of the speech is prepared. What should be properly composed public speaking, we already know. In order not to read what has been written, you should first of all learn the text, and to meet with the audience, draw up a plan and the main points.
To be ready for improvisation, it is necessary to have developed logical and figurative thinking, to possess a rich vocabulary and a broad outlook. Read a variety of literature, keep abreast of public events.
To maintain the proper mood among the public, stock up on some interesting facts, easy jokes, entertaining short stories.
So that you are not taken aback by the technical side of your speech, be aware of organizational issues: the hall, audio equipment, and video materials.
Do not forget that "on clothes meet." Make sure you look decent and fit the moment.
Engagement with the audience
From the first minutes of a meeting with listeners, a good speaker knows how to please him with his appearance and friendly manner of communication. By such qualities as honesty, openness, politeness, the speaker gains the confidence of the listener.
He feels the audience, predicts its reactions, controls the course of his speech and masterfully reaches his goal.
Tips for a novice speaker
Here we will answer the most frequently asked questions.
- How to learn to speak to the public? Only by speaking repeatedly can one gain the experience of public speaking. At work, at home, meeting with friends, participating in various events, you should try to develop this skill. To do this, you will need to expand your horizons so that you have something to tell, train your memory in order to remember unusual facts, stories.
- How interesting is it to submit information? Learn to speak oratory. Facial expressions, gestures, body language, intonation, timbre of the voice will cause genuine interest among listeners. Give it a try. Create a video of your presentation. Rate it level. Praise yourself.
- How to overcome fear of the audience? Such necessary quality as self-confidence is acquired with oratorical experience. Light excitement can even help you make a speech memorable and inspire the audience. Develop leadership skills, tune in to positive communication with the listener. This will help to overcome the strong excitement that appeared at first.
Oratory for children
Today, rhetoric, as a scientific discipline about oratory, is also in demand for the harmonious development of children. She develops the personal qualities of the child, teaches the ability to communicate, competently and confidently express her thoughts, conduct dialogue using intonation and facial expressions, and acquire the first skills of public speaking.
The objectives of teaching rhetoric are:
You can engage with children at home:
- to work on the technique of speech, speaking tongue twisters,
- to learn polite communication,
- read and talk a lot on different topics to increase vocabulary,
- organize theatrical performances to develop acting skills,
- to learn and read poetry with expression,
- train to speak to relatives and friends.
These classes will help your child become more confident and not be shy at public events, teach to establish contacts with people, and reveal their creative potential.
The power of a word
The success of mastery of oratory will provide work. Above the voice, content of speech, personal qualities. Try yourself, learn new skills in order to carry out your plan, improve.
Remember, a word is a message. Carrying the energy of the author, it has great power.
Light up curiosity in your listeners. Motivate them for good deeds.